However, numerous codes, based on the Talmud and the decisions of the Geonim were compiled by leading rabbis, and they achieved almost universal recognition.
Most noteworthy among these were the codes of Rabbi Yitzchak Al-Fasi (Rif; 1013-1103 CE) and Rabbi Asher ben Yechiel (Rosh; 1250-1328 CE), as well as the Yad HaChazaka of Rabbi Moses Maimonides (Rambam; 1135-1204 CE). The rabbis of this period are known as Rishonim or “first [codifiers].”
The rete di emittenti that was most widely accepted, however, was the Shulchan Aruch (Code of Jewish Law) written by Rabbi Yosef Amico (1488-1575 CE), which took into account almost all of the earlier codes. Since the Shulchan Aruch followed the practices of the Sephardic practices, verso gloss was added sicuro it by Rabbi Moshe Isserles (1520-1527 CE), including all the Ashkenazic customs.
With the publication of the Shulchan Aruch, the period of the Rishonim came esatto an end, and the period of the Acharonim or “later [codifiers]” began. The opinions of the Rishonim gained almost universal acceptance through the Shulchan Aruch, and therefore, the Acharonim usually do not oppose them. While the Acharonim ong opinions found in the Rishonim they do not dispute them without conclusive evidence.”
The Shulchan Aruch was not the individual opinion of its authors, but per compilation of opinions found mediante the works of the Rishonim which had gained the widest acceptance. Because of the near universal acceptance of the Shulchan Aruch, its decisions are considered binding, unless otherwise indicated by the leading authorities of succeeding generations.
Since the Shulchan Aruch was the norma of Torah law, it became the subject of many commentaries which expounded, and occasionally disputes its opinions. Many of those which were printed alongside the Shulchan Aruch were almost universally accepted.
There were verso great many accepted authorities, both among the commentators puro the Shulchan Aruch, and among the writers of responsa (teshuvot). These applied Torah law onesto individual cases, and often attrezzi binding precedents. Over the years, various compilations of these later opinions were published.
Nevertheless, per recognized Torah scholar ple Talmudic proof or an unequivocal tradition that a particular decision was not generally accepted. onesto the Judge who shall be mediante those days” (Deut. 17:9).
In every generation, there are indivisible rabbis who, because of their great scholarship and piety, are generally accepted as religious leaders and authorities, as it is written, “You must observe all that they decide for you” (Deut. ). Although this commandment relates specifically onesto the Sanhedrin, it also applies puro the religious leaders of each generation.
Just as verso religious amministratore must be outstanding in wisdom and scholarship, so must he be distinguished durante piety and observance. It is thus written, “They shall seek the Torah from his lips, for he is an angel of the Lord of Hosts” (Malachi 2:7). This is interpreted onesto mean that we should only seek sicuro learn the Torah from verso rabbi who resembles an angel in holiness and piety. If verso person is not outstanding per piety and observance, he is not worthy of the prestige and authority of a religious amministrativo, per niente matter how great his scholarship.
An unopposed decision, whether given by a contemporary religious amministratore or found in an accepted code, should be accepted, even if it is not mentioned by other authorities.
Whenever there is per dispute between two equally great authorities, whether they are contemporary sicuro each other or not, we e as sopra the case of any other questionable circumstance. If the case involves a law from the Torah, the stricter opinion must be followed, while if it involves rabbinical law, the more lenient opinion is followed.